Recent results from independent laboratory analysis achieved by Italy’s Polytechnic University of Turin (Politecnico di Torino – POLITO) confirmed that the samples of sandstone and conglomerate blocks taken last summer at Bosnia’s Sun Pyramid is ancient concrete made with artificially (man-made) aggregates.
In the new analysis made by the Chemistry Department of the POLITO both chemical and diffractometry analysis confirmed that the concrete material consists in inert material with a binding material that seems similar to Roman concrete.
The laboratory analysis also revealed that the sandstone samples collected from the covering of the concrete layers (the outer casing) of Bosnia's Sun Pyramid have the same composition of the concrete itself. The only difference consists in the inert material used for its manufacturing which results much smaller (fine-grained).
Photo: Artifical conglomerate blocks at Visocica placed one above another
Photo: Fine sandstone casing at Visocica, detail
Photo: Concrete layers composing the pyramid walls, detail
The report also says that the binding aggregates of the concrete (incl. the sandstone---casing) seem to be made by high temperature heating of clay (kaolinite and muscovite) and limestone materials (dolomite and calcite) which is typical for the chemical binding process that transforms those minerals into concrete-like binding material.
Photo: Sandal/shoe footprint left in the concrete material by ancient pyramid builders
After the Kemal Kapetanovic Institute from the University in Zenica and the French Geopolymer Institute leaded by Prof. Dr. Joseph Davidovits, another independent and renown institution confirmed the use of artifical materials for the construction of the Bosnian pyramids.
Information about the chemical analysis
Subject: Result of the chemical analysis of concrete from the pyramid of the Sun
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 2009 03:59:16 +0100
Dear Dr Osmanagich,
Thanks for the latest news you sent us.
I would like to communicate to you a news that you may find interesting. During our visit to Visoko our team collected some sample of concrete and sandstone from the pyramid of the Sun. We brought them to the Chemistry Dept. of the Politecnico of Turin for analysis. In this dept. there is a laboratory specialized in construction materials analysis. The result of the chemical analysis and of the diffractometry analysis confirm that both the concrete and the sandstone are artificial manmade construction materials. The concrete consists in inert material with a binding material that the report states seems to be made "in a similar way of the one that the ancient Romans used to follow to make their concrete-like material". The "sandstone" that we collected from the covering of the concrete layers on the pyramid of the Sun has the same composition of the concrete itself only the inert material is smaller. The report continues saying that the binding part of the concrete (and "sandstone") seems to be made by high temperature heating of clay (kaolinite and muscovite) and limestone materials (dolomite and calcite) that transforms them into a concrete-like binding material. This report confirms your research and we thought you may find it interesting.
Congratulations for you work.
Subject: RE: Result of the chemical analysis of concrete from the pyramid of the Sun
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 2009 13:10:03 +0200
Dear Dr. Semir: This result being conformed, is the beginning of important channels of
research: the sources of these minerals, the transportation, where were they processed in such quantities, methods of processing, what fuel, by whom, and when. We are eagerly waiting.
Subject: Re: Result of the chemical analysis of concrete from the pyramid of the Sun
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 2009 13:28:17 +0100
This is good news. It confirms my electron microscopical investigation sent on April 2009.
Photo: The Valentino Castle
The Polytechnic University of Turin is an engineering university based in northern Italy. It has been established in 1859 and is Italy’s oldest and most renown university in the field of Architecture and Engineering. The university is well-known in Europe and all over the world. According to ‘Academic Ranking of World Universities’ published by Institute of Higher Education of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in engineering, technology and computer science fields, the Polytechnic University of Turin ranks among Top 50 universities in the world and at rank 1 in Italy.
The POLITO has strong research links with local and international companies, reaching about 700 yearly research contracts with firms such as Thales Alenia Space, Motorola, Compaq, Ferrari, Fiat, General Motors, IBM, Microsoft, Nokia etc. (to cite few).
Thanks to the POLITO the construction techniques of the ancient Egyptians are now a little less mysterious
Model machine shows how Egyptians built the Pyramids as told by Herodotus
Through a simulation with a model machine built by the “Politecnico di Torino”, the first of its kind in the world, experts in construction techniques have shown that is possible with the use of rope wound around a drum and twisting of the cables to haul huge blocks of granite, heavy up to ten tons, up through a long tunnel.
Not only that, just the strength of one man is enough to carry any huge block along the tunnel. For the construction of the pyramid of Khufu, heavy blocks up to 45 tons could be maneuvered with the strength of just three or four men.
The machine that Herodotus mentions truly existed, according to this experiment, and was rebuilt in scale and used for the first time in a simulation in the department of structural and geotechnical engineering, in collaboration with Iveco, which has funded part of the experiment.
Ten meters long, the modern model of the machine is capable of moving up to five tons. This version was submitted to the Scientific Committee of the Foundation of the Egyptian Museum and experts, during the national conference of “Egyptology and Papyrology”.
Sources: LA REPUBBLICA 2009/06